Academic Studies & Publications

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Paving the way for increased e-health record use: elaborating intentions of Gen-Z (Open Access)

This paper presents the determinants of personal e-health records adoption by the Gen-Z population and reveals barriers to use. Gen-Z members are one of the most prominent users of digital health services that have an influence on older generations’ technology adoption but have often been overlooked in scholarly research. A survey of 1,000 Gen-Z university students based on modified UTAUT was used to address this research gap. The analysis revealed the vital role of social influence in paving the way for higher adoption among Gen-Z. Moreover, significant influences of performance expectancy, facilitating conditions, and e-health literacy on behavioural intentions were detected. Effort expectancy was found to be insignificant in impacting Gen-Z’s intentions to adopt electronic health record systems. Moreover, privacy concerns acted as a barrier to adoption, yet the offsetting effect of users’ trust in health systems was shown to be instrumental in overcoming such privacy-related barriers.


Impact of the pandemic on social media influencer marketing in fashion: a qualitative study

In spite of the rise of social media influencers observed in the 2010s, the direction and future of influencers are ambiguous. This popular yet overused marketing tool has shown certain problems and limitations such as a decrease in perceived authenticity and market saturation. Additionally, the outbreak of COVD-19 has amplified the significance of these factors and made many companies and influencers reconsider their involvement in influencer marketing. Within this context, this paper aims to explore whether influencers were impacted by diminishing perceived authenticity, market saturation or the prolonged pandemic. Also, the authors aim to investigate influencers’ perception of the future of influencer marketing post-pandemic.


To gain insight into trends in influencer marketing from the influencer’s perspective, this paper uses qualitative research in the form of interviews with influencers and industry professionals.


The findings highlight the importance of perceived authenticity for success in influencer marketing. Most interviewees indicated that they had noticed a boom in social media influencer marketing before the pandemic, yet provided mixed views regarding the market during the pandemic. Several believe that influencers will continue to be relevant in the increasingly digital world (e.g. increasing digital marketing spend and e-commerce), whereas an expectation of new digital platforms and innovations was also observed. In the long term, saturation and decreased effectiveness were predicted by several interviewees.


This under-researched topic is of relevance especially to consumer goods companies, as social media marketing and influencer marketing are currently highly effective and popular tools. To refine marketing strategies designed around influencers, understanding the limitations, in the context of COVID-19, is crucial.


Mobile Multi-Brand Loyalty Programs: Elaborating Customer Value and Satisfaction

This study, based on value theory, aims to shed light on our understanding of changing consumer perspectives on loyalty programs (LPs) within the digitally transformed retail environment by assessing the significance of value perceptions (i.e., monetary, hedonic, symbolic, knowledge) provided by LP benefits on member satisfaction. The value theory was expanded with the addition of personalization and information disclosure comfort constructs in accordance with the literature on mobile application adoption. The results of an online survey study on two leading coalition LPs in Turkey indicate that the monetary, hedonic, and symbolic values established by LP benefits are positively related to satisfaction. Furthermore, personalization was found to be a major factor that indirectly influences satisfaction through different perceptions of value. Privacy concerns, on the other hand, were found to have a significant but weak influence on satisfaction. Finally, the well-established effect of satisfaction on attitudinal loyalty was also confirmed.



How to Engage Consumers through Effective Social Media Use—Guidelines for Consumer Goods Companies from an Emerging Market

This study aims to establish actionable guidelines and provide strategic insights as a means of increasing the social media effectiveness of consumer brands. Post-related factors in addition to the contextual and temporal factors influencing consumer engagement (i.e., reposting, commenting
on or liking posts), as an indicator of social media effectiveness, are considered in detail in the research model. Moreover, the model considers differences between industries as well as social media platforms. A total of 1130 posts made by four brands, two each from the durable goods and
fast-moving consumer goods sectors, were collected from Facebook and Twitter in Turkey. Through predictive analysis, four different machine learning algorithms were utilized to develop easy-to-apply plans of action and strategies. The findings highlight the significant impact of videos, images, post frequency and interactivity on engagement. Furthermore, social media platforms and the brands themselves were found to be instrumental in influencing engagement levels, indicating that more than one formula is needed for effective social media management. The range and depth of the post-related factors (e.g., image type, video length, kind of interactivity) considered go far beyond those found in the significant majority of similar studies. Moreover, the unique setting and the novel data analysis algorithms applied set this study apart from similar ones.


Insights into mobile health application market via a content analysis of marketplace data with machine learning

Despite the benefits offered by an abundance of health applications promoted on app marketplaces (e.g., Google Play Store), the wide adoption of mobile health and e-health apps is yet to come. This study aims to investigate the current landscape of smartphone apps that focus on improving and sustaining health and wellbeing. Understanding the categories that popular apps focus on and the relevant features provided to users, which lead to higher user scores and downloads will offer insights to enable higher adoption in the general populace. This study on 1,000 mobile health applications aims to shed light on the reasons why particular apps are liked and adopted while many are not. User-generated data (i.e. review scores) and company-generated data (i.e. app descriptions) were collected from app marketplaces and manually coded and categorized by two researchers. For analysis, Artificial Neural Networks, Random Forest and Naïve Bayes Artificial Intelligence algorithms were used. The analysis led to features that attracted more download behavior and higher user scores. The findings suggest that apps that mention a privacy policy or provide videos in description lead to higher user scores, whereas free apps with in-app purchase possibilities, social networking and sharing features and feedback mechanisms lead to higher number of downloads. Moreover, differences in user scores and the total number of downloads are detected in distinct subcategories of mobile health apps.


Do Personality Traits and Shopping Motivations Affect Social Commerce Adoption Intentions? Evidence from an Emerging Market (Click to download)

Social commerce has become a hot topic since the beginning of Web 2.0 era; however, relevant research is scarce in emerging economies. This study aims to fill this research gap and answer the main research question of “what type of relevant personality traits and shopping motivations affect social commerce adoption intentions”. The research model was developed upon personality traits (openness to experience, need for uniqueness and buying impulsiveness) that are deemed to be relevant to online shopping and social media use. An online questionnaire was conducted on social media users. A total of 269 valid questionnaires were analyzed via structural equation modeling to test for the proposed relationships, majority of which emerged as non-linear. The findings highlight the significance of socialization motives in addition to utilitarian and hedonic shopping motives on social commerce adoption intentions. Openness to experience emerged as a significant trait that has an indirect effect on social commerce adoption intentions. Age and education materialized as significant demographics influencing shopping motivations in a social commerce setting.

To cite: Aydin, G. (2019): Do Personality Traits and Shopping Motivations Affect Social Commerce Adoption Intentions? Evidence from an Emerging Market, Journal of Internet Commerce 18(4), 428-467


Social media engagement and organic post effectiveness: A roadmap for increasing the effectiveness of social media use in hospitality industry (Click to download)

The present study assessed the social media use behavior of luxury hospitality facilities and offers suggestions to improve organic post effectiveness. All five-star tourism facilities operating in Turkey were incorporated into the study and publicly available post data on Facebook accounts of 441 facilities (out of a total of 612) were examined in the high tourist season (August) for one month. Data on 2,012 Facebook posts were obtained manually and filtered down to 1,847. The collected post data were subsequently coded using a content analysis form and analyzed via ordinal regression. The results highlighted the positive effects of interactive content and vivid content as well as the significance of the content type in achieving higher interaction among followers. The facility location and category (hotel, holiday village, thermal hotel) also emerged as significant factors affecting follower interactions.

To cite: Aydin, G. (2019): Social media engagement and organic post effectiveness: A roadmap for increasing the effectiveness of social media use in hospitality industry, Journal of Hospitality Marketing & Management, DOI: 10.1080/19368623.2019.1588824


Examining Social Commerce Intentions Through the Uses and Gratifications Theory (Click to download)

Changes in consumer behavior enabled by social networking technologies is leading to a transformation in e-commerce. Consumers’ use of social media sites and relevant technologies for different aspects of shopping has become an issue of utmost concern to retailers and related businesses. Adopting a uses
and gratifications theory (UGT) perspective, the article aims to demonstrate motives of users utilizing social media in their purchase decisions. Drawing from digital marketing and e-commerce literature, relevant uses and gratifications for social commerce (s-commerce) were chosen as information access, escape, entertainment, passing time, cool and new trends, and socialization. The proposed model was analyzed and tested via OLS regression and ANOVA analysis using the data collected from a survey study on 361 subjects in Turkey. Information access, relaxing entertainment, and socialization motives emerged as significant antecedents of s-commerce intentions. No significant effect of demographics on social commerce intentions were observed in the analysis.

To cite: Aydin, G. (2019) Examining Social Commerce Intentions Through the Uses and Gratifications Theory, International Journal of E-Business Research Volume 15(2), 44-70 DOI: 10.4018/IJEBR.2019040103


Adoption of Mobile  Payment Systems: A Study on Mobile Wallets (Click to download)

This study aims to understand the factors contributing to consumer attitude development towards and intention to use mobile payment systems. One of major mobile network operators' mobile wallet application in Turkey was used as a proxy of the mobile payment systems. Survey methodology is used to collect data from subscribers by stratified random sampling among two distinct groups (users and non-users). A total of 1395 questionnaires were collected from subscribers and analyzed using partial least squares structural equation modeling. The findings highlight the importance of ease of use and usefulness in attitude development. On the other hand, security concerns were found to have low level of effects on attitudes and use intentions. Effect of social influence was found to be insignificant among the users. There were differences between users' and non-users' perceptions and beliefs indicated by significant differences in the majority of the constructs employed in the study.

To cite: Aydin, G., & Burnaz, S. (2016). Adoption of Mobile Payment Systems: A study on mobile wallets. Journal of Business, Economics and Finance, 5(1), 73–92.


Factors affecting health tourism and international health-care facility choice (Click to download)

Health-care tourism has become a major industry in the past decade. Following the increasing activity in health-care tourism, the decision-making process of consumers in choosing an international health-care facility has become increasingly important to the related parties. The present study aims to offer a holistic model of international health-care facility choice that incorporates the important dimensions by assessing the growth drivers and the alternative factors proposed in the literature and by validating them via a survey study (face to face structured interviews).

To cite: Aydin, G., & Karamehmet, B. (2017). Factors affecting health tourism and international health-care facility choice. International Journal of Pharmaceutical and Healthcare Marketing, 11(1), 16–36.


A comparative study on attitudes towards SMS advertising and mobile application advertising (Click to download)

The objective of the present study is to determine the major factors influencing consumers’ attitudes towards two major types of mobile marketing activities: SMS advertising and mobile application advertising. It also discusses the potential differences in antecedents of attitude between the two types of advertisements. The study was carried out in Turkey among university students, who are commonly targeted in mobile marketing studies due to their high mobile phone ownership rates and familiarity with new technologies. A total of 489 valid questionnaires were obtained and analysed using partial least squares structural equation modelling. The findings indicate that overall attitudes towards both mobile advertisement types are negative, SMS marketing being the inferior type. Differences in perceptions of the antecedents of attitudes towards SMS and mobile app ads were detected. On the other hand, the way variables affect attitudes (paths) among the two wireless advertisements types were quite similar.

To cite: Aydin, G., & Karamehmet, B. (2017). A comparative study on attitudes towards SMS advertising and mobile application advertising. International Journal of Mobile Communications, 15(5), 514.


Role of Personalization in Shaping Attitudes Towards Social Media Ads (Click to download)

The present article aims to understand attitudes towards social media ads, one of the most recent and rapidly growing forms of digital advertisements. So far, little attention has been paid in developing countries to the most rapidly growing type of advertising and the present study aims to contribute to fill this research gap. A survey study was carried out to understand the attitudes using Ducoffe's advertising value model and extending it by the inclusion of "rewards" and "personalization" constructs. Facebook ads are used as a proxy for social media ads and a total of 327 questionnaires were collected from Turkish consumers, which were filtered down to 281 and analyzed using structural equation modelling. The findings indicate that credibility, personalization, informativeness and entertainment have direct positive effects on advertising value and have indirect effects on attitudes towards social media ads. Personalization emerged as a significant factor affecting all other related constructs.

To cite: Aydin, G. (2018). Role of Personalization in Shaping Attitudes Towards Social Media Ads. International Journal of E-Business Research, 14(3), 54–76.


Technology Addiction in the Digital Economy and Suggested Solutions (Click to download)

This study argues that technology addiction is a natural consequence of current digital ecosystem characterized with attention economy. The fact that technology platforms architect addictive experiences by exploiting weaknesses of human brain results in consumers’ spending prolonged periods of time on screens. To remedy this problem, this paper proposes various solutions and best practices using a comprehensive approach. Proposals at individual level, family level, organization level and ultimately societal and governmental level are discussed, in order, to overcome technology addiction problem.

To cite: Ertemel, A. V., & Aydın, G. (2018). Dijital Ekonomide Teknoloji Bağımlılığı ve Çözüm Önerileri. ADDICTA: The Turkish Journal on Addictions, 5(4), 665–690.


Effect of demographics on use intention of gamified systems (Click to download)

Gamification has become an influential term in diverse fields ranging from education to systems development and marketing. The recent intensifying emphasis is attributable to enabling technologies and successful practical applications used for changing attitudes and increasing engagement. However, relevant academic studies are not wide-spread and this study aims to address this vital research gap. This study is structured to understand the factors affecting intention to use gamified systems and test whether they are affected by gender or age. An online survey study was conducted on a web-based gamified system ( and following a detailed screening process, a total of 168 fully complete questionnaires were attained. The theoretical model employed was developed upon technology acceptance model (TAM) and modified to incorporate an intrinsic motivation element, namely the "perceived enjoyment" construct. According to the findings, age and gender moderate the relationships between usefulness, ease of use, perceived enjoyment and intention to use the gamified system.

To cite: Aydin, G. (2018). Effect of demographics on use intention of gamified systems. International Journal of Technology and Human Interaction, 14(1).


User Attitudes towards Mobile Payment: A New Purchasing Application from Turkey (Click to download)

The purpose of this study is mainly to understand the user attitudes towards mobile payment systems. The mobile wallet application of a major mobile network operator in Turkey was chosen as a proxy of the mobile payment systems to carry out the study. The theoretical model was developed on Technology Acceptance Model and the related literature. The data were collected from the customers who have downloaded the mobile wallet application. With the help of the operator, stratified random sampling was used in selecting users from the company database. The survey study was carried out through computer aided telephone interviews by a major marketing research company. Following a screening process, a total of 640 questionnaires collected from subscribers were used in the analyses. The relations between the major constructs as well as their effect on attitudes were explored. Among major findings, the significance of personal innovativeness in attitude development was evident. Another finding to note was the low significance of security concerns among the users of mobile wallet application. Perceived security concerns affected attitudes to a smaller extent compared to other constructs such as ease of use and perceived usefulness.

To cite: Aydın, G., & Burnaz, Ş. (2016). User Attitudes towards Mobile Payment: A New Purchasing Application from Turkey. Journal of Euromarketing, 25(3–4), 115–130.


Authenticity, Uniqueness and Intention to Buy Scarce Products (Click to download)

This study aims to find empirical evidence between personality elements (authenticity, sense of uniqueness, need for uniqueness) and individual’s preference of scarce products (PUI). A model was founded upon an extension of Snyder’s studies of uniqueness seeking behavior and psychological authenticity literature. Survey methodology was used and a questionnaire was developed using widely accepted authenticity (operationalized under three categories, namely authentic living, self-alienation and external influence), sense of uniqueness (SOU), and need for uniqueness (NFU) scales. A total of 257 valid questionnaires were obtained out of 298 fully-completed forms collected from young millennials in Turkey, one of the largest developing countries with a collectivist culture. The data was analyzed using partial least squares structural equation modeling (PLS-SEM). The results indicate that only authentic living has a statistically significant effect on individuals’ SOU. This component of authenticity also has a significant effect on consumers’ desire for scarce and unique products through SOU. Significant but moderate level direct effects of SOU on PUI and NFU on PUI were observed in the analysis. Compared to the
extant literature, this study adopts a more comprehensive interpretation of uniqueness, and incorporates authenticity as an antecedent to fill a research gap.

To cite: Aydin, G. (2016). Authenticity, Uniqueness and Intention to Buy Scarce Products, International Journal of Marketing Studies, 8(2), 59-73 doi:10.5539/ijms.v8n2p59


Adoption of Gamified Systems: A Study on a Social Media Gamification Website (Click to download)

This study aims to understand the factors affecting the attitude towards and adoption of gamified systems, which are receiving increasing interest worldwide as they can be used for attitude change and increasing user engagement in a wide range of areas. Whether individuals use these systems because they consider them useful or if there are other motivational factors deemed important are analysed. Considering the gamification applications as new technology applications, an extended technology acceptance model (TAM) is used based on existing literature to explain attitude formation and adoption of gamified systems. An online survey is carried out on a social networking gamification website ( and the collected data is analysed using partial least squares structural equation modelling (PLS-SEM). The findings indicate that extended TAM incorporating intrinsic motivation elements (enjoyment and playfulness) is able to explain attitudes towards and continued use intention for a gamified system.

To cite: Aydin, G. (2015). Adoption of Gamified Systems: A Study on a Social Media Gamification Website. International Journal of Online Marketing, 5(3), 18-37, DOI: 10.4018/IJOM.2015070102